Monthly Archives: December 2019

Linux Sunucularda SNMP Nasıl Aktif Edilir

LINUX MAKINALARDA SNMP NASIL AKTİF EDİLİR

SNMPD servisi aşağıdaki komut ile yüklenir.
yum install net-snmp net-snmp-utils

Servis yüklendikten sonra,çalıştırmaya başlamak üzere ayarlandığını aşağıdaki gibi doğrulayın.
Makineninizin Operation System(OS) versiyonunu öğrenmek için aşağıdaki komut ile kontrolleri yapabilriisniz.
cat /etc/os-release

– Eğer OS’iniz CentOS 6 ise ;
chkconfig snmpd on
– Eğer OS’iniz CentOS 7 ise;
systemctl enable snmpd

YÜKLENEN SNMP’yi KONFİGÜRE ETMEK İÇİN

Aşağıdaki komutu koşarak apılandırma dosyasını yedeklemeyi unutmayın.
mv /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf.orig

Aşağıdakileri komutu çalıştırarak yeni bir SNMP yapılandırma dosyasını oluşturun.
touch /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf

Bu işlemlerden sonra /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf dosyasına aşağıdaki parametreleri kaydediniz aşağıdaki konfigürasyonda SNMP port için 50161 portu, SNMP community için ise default olarak kullanılan public kullanılmıştır.

###############################################################################
#
# snmpd.conf:
# An example configuration file for configuring the ucd-snmp snmpd agent.
#
###############################################################################
#
# This file is intended to only be as a starting point. Many more
# configuration directives exist than are mentioned in this file. For
# full details, see the snmpd.conf(5) manual page.
#
# All lines beginning with a ‘#’ are comments and are intended for you
# to read. All other lines are configuration commands for the agent.

###############################################################################
# Access Control
###############################################################################

# As shipped, the snmpd demon will only respond to queries on the
# system mib group until this file is replaced or modified for
# security purposes. Examples are shown below about how to increase the
# level of access.

# By far, the most common question I get about the agent is “why won’t
# it work?”, when really it should be “how do I configure the agent to
# allow me to access it?”
#
# By default, the agent responds to the “public” community for read
# only access, if run out of the box without any configuration file in
# place. The following examples show you other ways of configuring
# the agent so that you can change the community names, and give
# yourself write access to the mib tree as well.
#
# For more information, read the FAQ as well as the snmpd.conf(5)
# manual page.

agentAddress udp:50161,udp6:[::1]:50161

####
# First, map the community name “public” into a “security name”

# sec.name source community
com2sec notConfigUser default public

####
# Second, map the security name into a group name:

# groupName securityModel securityName
group notConfigGroup v1 notConfigUser
group notConfigGroup v2c notConfigUser

####
# Third, create a view for us to let the group have rights to:

# Make at least snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public system fast again.
# name incl/excl subtree mask(optional)
view systemview included .1.3.6.1.2.1.1
view systemview included .1.3.6.1.2.1.25.1.1

####
# Finally, grant the group read-only access to the systemview view.

# group context sec.model sec.level prefix read write notif
access notConfigGroup “” any noauth exact systemview none none

# —————————————————————————–

# Here is a commented out example configuration that allows less
# restrictive access.

# YOU SHOULD CHANGE THE “COMMUNITY” TOKEN BELOW TO A NEW KEYWORD ONLY
# KNOWN AT YOUR SITE. YOU *MUST* CHANGE THE NETWORK TOKEN BELOW TO
# SOMETHING REFLECTING YOUR LOCAL NETWORK ADDRESS SPACE.

## sec.name source community
#com2sec local localhost COMMUNITY
#com2sec mynetwork NETWORK/24 COMMUNITY

## group.name sec.model sec.name
#group MyRWGroup any local
#group MyROGroup any mynetwork
#
#group MyRWGroup any otherv3user
#…

## incl/excl subtree mask
#view all included .1 80

## -or just the mib2 tree-

#view mib2 included .iso.org.dod.internet.mgmt.mib-2 fc

## context sec.model sec.level prefix read write notif
#access MyROGroup “” any noauth 0 all none none
#access MyRWGroup “” any noauth 0 all all all

###############################################################################
# Sample configuration to make net-snmpd RFC 1213.
# Unfortunately v1 and v2c don’t allow any user based authentification, so
# opening up the default config is not an option from a security point.
#
# WARNING: If you uncomment the following lines you allow write access to your
# snmpd daemon from any source! To avoid this use different names for your
# community or split out the write access to a different community and
# restrict it to your local network.
# Also remember to comment the syslocation and syscontact parameters later as
# otherwise they are still read only (see FAQ for net-snmp).
#

# First, map the community name “public” into a “security name”
# sec.name source community
#com2sec notConfigUser default public

# Second, map the security name into a group name:
# groupName securityModel securityName
#group notConfigGroup v1 notConfigUser
#group notConfigGroup v2c notConfigUser

# Third, create a view for us to let the group have rights to:
# Open up the whole tree for ro, make the RFC 1213 required ones rw.
# name incl/excl subtree mask(optional)
#view roview included .1
#view rwview included system.sysContact
#view rwview included system.sysName
#view rwview included system.sysLocation
#view rwview included interfaces.ifTable.ifEntry.ifAdminStatus
#view rwview included at.atTable.atEntry.atPhysAddress
#view rwview included at.atTable.atEntry.atNetAddress
#view rwview included ip.ipForwarding
#view rwview included ip.ipDefaultTTL
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteDest
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteIfIndex
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric1
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric2
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric3
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric4
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteType
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteAge
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMask
#view rwview included ip.ipRouteTable.ipRouteEntry.ipRouteMetric5
#view rwview included ip.ipNetToMediaTable.ipNetToMediaEntry.ipNetToMediaIfIndex
#view rwview included ip.ipNetToMediaTable.ipNetToMediaEntry.ipNetToMediaPhysAddress
#view rwview included ip.ipNetToMediaTable.ipNetToMediaEntry.ipNetToMediaNetAddress
#view rwview included ip.ipNetToMediaTable.ipNetToMediaEntry.ipNetToMediaType
#view rwview included tcp.tcpConnTable.tcpConnEntry.tcpConnState
#view rwview included egp.egpNeighTable.egpNeighEntry.egpNeighEventTrigger
#view rwview included snmp.snmpEnableAuthenTraps

# Finally, grant the group read-only access to the systemview view.
# group context sec.model sec.level prefix read write notif
#access notConfigGroup “” any noauth exact roview rwview none

###############################################################################
# System contact information
#

# It is also possible to set the sysContact and sysLocation system
# variables through the snmpd.conf file:

syslocation Unknown (edit /etc/snmp/snmpd.conf)
syscontact Root (configure /etc/snmp/snmp.local.conf)

# Example output of snmpwalk:
# % snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public system
# system.sysDescr.0 = “SunOS name sun4c”
# system.sysObjectID.0 = OID: enterprises.ucdavis.ucdSnmpAgent.sunos4
# system.sysUpTime.0 = Timeticks: (595637548) 68 days, 22:32:55
# system.sysContact.0 = “Me
# system.sysName.0 = “name”
# system.sysLocation.0 = “Right here, right now.”
# system.sysServices.0 = 72

###############################################################################
# Logging
#

# We do not want annoying “Connection from UDP: ” messages in syslog.
# If the following option is commented out, snmpd will print each incoming
# connection, which can be useful for debugging.

dontLogTCPWrappersConnects yes

# —————————————————————————–

###############################################################################
# Process checks.
#
# The following are examples of how to use the agent to check for
# processes running on the host. The syntax looks something like:
#
# proc NAME [MAX=0] [MIN=0]
#
# NAME: the name of the process to check for. It must match
# exactly (ie, http will not find httpd processes).
# MAX: the maximum number allowed to be running. Defaults to 0.
# MIN: the minimum number to be running. Defaults to 0.

#
# Examples (commented out by default):
#

# Make sure mountd is running
#proc mountd

# Make sure there are no more than 4 ntalkds running, but 0 is ok too.
#proc ntalkd 4

# Make sure at least one sendmail, but less than or equal to 10 are running.
#proc sendmail 10 1

# A snmpwalk of the process mib tree would look something like this:
#
# % snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.2
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prIndex.1 = 1
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prIndex.2 = 2
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prIndex.3 = 3
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prNames.1 = “mountd”
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prNames.2 = “ntalkd”
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prNames.3 = “sendmail”
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMin.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMin.2 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMin.3 = 1
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMax.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMax.2 = 4
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prMax.3 = 10
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prCount.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prCount.2 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prCount.3 = 1
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrorFlag.1 = 1
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrorFlag.2 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrorFlag.3 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrMessage.1 = “No mountd process running.”
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrMessage.2 = “”
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrMessage.3 = “”
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrFix.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrFix.2 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.procTable.prEntry.prErrFix.3 = 0
#
# Note that the errorFlag for mountd is set to 1 because one is not
# running (in this case an rpc.mountd is, but thats not good enough),
# and the ErrMessage tells you what’s wrong. The configuration
# imposed in the snmpd.conf file is also shown.
#
# Special Case: When the min and max numbers are both 0, it assumes
# you want a max of infinity and a min of 1.
#


# —————————————————————————–

###############################################################################
# Executables/scripts
#

#
# You can also have programs run by the agent that return a single
# line of output and an exit code. Here are two examples.
#
# exec NAME PROGRAM [ARGS …]
#
# NAME: A generic name. The name must be unique for each exec statement.
# PROGRAM: The program to run. Include the path!
# ARGS: optional arguments to be passed to the program

# a simple hello world

#exec echotest /bin/echo hello world

# Run a shell script containing:
#
# #!/bin/sh
# echo hello world
# echo hi there
# exit 35
#
# Note: this has been specifically commented out to prevent
# accidental security holes due to someone else on your system writing
# a /tmp/shtest before you do. Uncomment to use it.
#
#exec shelltest /bin/sh /tmp/shtest

# Then,
# % snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.8
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extIndex.1 = 1
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extIndex.2 = 2
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extNames.1 = “echotest”
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extNames.2 = “shelltest”
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extCommand.1 = “/bin/echo hello world”
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extCommand.2 = “/bin/sh /tmp/shtest”
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extResult.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extResult.2 = 35
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extOutput.1 = “hello world.”
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extOutput.2 = “hello world.”
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extErrFix.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.extTable.extEntry.extErrFix.2 = 0

# Note that the second line of the /tmp/shtest shell script is cut
# off. Also note that the exit status of 35 was returned.

# —————————————————————————–
###############################################################################
# disk checks
#
# The agent can check the amount of available disk space, and make
# sure it is above a set limit.
# disk PATH [MIN=100000]
#
# PATH: mount path to the disk in question.
# MIN: Disks with space below this value will have the Mib’s errorFlag set.
# Default value = 100000.

# Check the / partition and make sure it contains at least 10 megs.
#disk / 10000

# % snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.9
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskIndex.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskPath.1 = “/” Hex: 2F
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskDevice.1 = “/dev/dsk/c201d6s0”
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskMinimum.1 = 10000
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskTotal.1 = 837130
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskAvail.1 = 316325
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskUsed.1 = 437092
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskPercent.1 = 58
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskErrorFlag.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.diskTable.dskEntry.diskErrorMsg.1 = “”

# —————————————————————————–

###############################################################################
# load average checks
#

# load [1MAX=12.0] [5MAX=12.0] [15MAX=12.0]
#
# 1MAX: If the 1 minute load average is above this limit at query
# time, the errorFlag will be set.
# 5MAX: Similar, but for 5 min average.
# 15MAX: Similar, but for 15 min average.

# Check for loads:
#load 12 14 14

# % snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.10
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveIndex.1 = 1
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveIndex.2 = 2
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveIndex.3 = 3
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveNames.1 = “Load-1”
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveNames.2 = “Load-5”
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveNames.3 = “Load-15”
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveLoad.1 = “0.49” Hex: 30 2E 34 39
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveLoad.2 = “0.31” Hex: 30 2E 33 31
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveLoad.3 = “0.26” Hex: 30 2E 32 36
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveConfig.1 = “12.00”
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveConfig.2 = “14.00”
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveConfig.3 = “14.00”
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrorFlag.1 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrorFlag.2 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrorFlag.3 = 0
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrMessage.1 = “”
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrMessage.2 = “”
# enterprises.ucdavis.loadTable.laEntry.loadaveErrMessage.3 = “”

# —————————————————————————–

###############################################################################
# Extensible sections.
#

# This alleviates the multiple line output problem found in the
# previous executable mib by placing each mib in its own mib table:

# Run a shell script containing:
#
# #!/bin/sh
# echo hello world
# echo hi there
# exit 35
#
# Note: this has been specifically commented out to prevent
# accidental security holes due to someone else on your system writing
# a /tmp/shtest before you do. Uncomment to use it.
#
# exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.50 shelltest /bin/sh /tmp/shtest

# % snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.50
# enterprises.ucdavis.50.1.1 = 1
# enterprises.ucdavis.50.2.1 = “shelltest”
# enterprises.ucdavis.50.3.1 = “/bin/sh /tmp/shtest”
# enterprises.ucdavis.50.100.1 = 35
# enterprises.ucdavis.50.101.1 = “hello world.”
# enterprises.ucdavis.50.101.2 = “hi there.”
# enterprises.ucdavis.50.102.1 = 0

# Now the Output has grown to two lines, and we can see the ‘hi
# there.’ output as the second line from our shell script.
#
# Note that you must alter the mib.txt file to be correct if you want
# the .50.* outputs above to change to reasonable text descriptions.
# Other ideas:
#
# exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.51 ps /bin/ps
# exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.52 top /usr/local/bin/top
# exec .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.53 mailq /usr/bin/mailq
# —————————————————————————–

###############################################################################
# Pass through control.
#

# Usage:
# pass MIBOID EXEC-COMMAND
#
# This will pass total control of the mib underneath the MIBOID
# portion of the mib to the EXEC-COMMAND.
#
# Note: You’ll have to change the path of the passtest script to your
# source directory or install it in the given location.
#
# Example: (see the script for details)
# (commented out here since it requires that you place the
# script in the right location. (its not installed by default))

# pass .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.255 /bin/sh /usr/local/local/passtest

# % snmpwalk -v 1 localhost -c public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.255
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.1 = “life the universe and everything”
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.2.1 = 42
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.2.2 = OID: 42.42.42
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.3 = Timeticks: (363136200) 42 days, 0:42:42
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.4 = IpAddress: 127.0.0.1
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.5 = 42
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.6 = Gauge: 42
#
# % snmpget -v 1 localhost public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.255.5
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.5 = 42
#
# % snmpset -v 1 localhost public .1.3.6.1.4.1.2021.255.1 s “New string”
# enterprises.ucdavis.255.1 = “New string”
#

# For specific usage information, see the man/snmpd.conf.5 manual page
# as well as the local/passtest script used in the above example.

###############################################################################
# Further Information
#
# See the snmpd.conf manual page, and the output of “snmpd -H”.

Yapılandırma dosyasını açın ve sonunda çalıştırarak SNMP hizmetini başlatın.
– CentOS 6 için;
service snmpd restart
– CentOS 7 için;
systemctl restart snmpd